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A Month Old Boy
Aug 2018
77 Answers
Hi Don't worry... I had my first pregnancy in USA.. our elders visa got rejected and reached to a point in pregnancy no flight journey.. there is no other option except to handle it alone with hubby. Do not get panic and think that we women cannot do. WE CAN... yes we went to pregnancy and baby classes and learnt all that's necessary.. my husband was able to take only 1 week leave and he had to rush to the office.. it's all alone me who handled new born, feeding, oil massage, baths, bottle cleaning etc etc. My hubbys work started to be more pathetic that he could not help me after coming from office.. my friend helped me in cooking for a month.. after a month my baby born I started cooking. We cannot afford maid in USA. So it's me and hubby who use to do all the work and manage baby. Weekends he use to take care of cleaning house and laundry. It's not something that we cannot handle.. build confidence and do it yourself.. it might be messy but you can do it.. situations will make us impossible also possible. USA household work is easy but India is little difficult.. talk to your husband and keep maid.. so that you can avoid household works completely and focus on baby.. you can do it dear... all the best.. Coming to your mom you should be knowing what's her problem is.. think think. If you think it's financial problem why don't you discuss with your husband and help her?? If it's her health problem why can't you keep a maid in your moms place?? So that work will be less and she can help you just with baby.. there is one more point too.. are you contributing your share of work?? Sorry I have observed my cousins try to not contribute there share and expect everything their mom to do.. at this age they might not be able to do so. Share of work I'm talking about is with baby not household..
Third Trimester
Sep 2018
55 Answers
5 Months Old Girl
Jul 10
65 Answers
2 Months Old Boy
Nov 14
1 Answer
Third Trimester
Aug 3
4 Answers
Placenta delivers nutrients and oxygen from the blood of the mother to the blood of the baby. The placenta covers a wide area and is connected to the uterus of the mother. The umbilical cord connects the placenta to the baby. The front area of the uterus is considered the anterior; the back side is the posterior; the fundal is the top wall; and the sides of the uterus are the right and left laterals. It doesn’t matter which area of the uterus the placenta situates itself, but if the lower portion is too far down it can make it difficult for the baby’s head to descend when it is time for the birth. Having a posterior placenta means that it can cause the mother to experience excessive bleeding while pregnant as well as while giving birth. What Is Posterior Placenta? When the placenta of a mother attaches itself to her uterus on the back wall, it is considered a posterior placenta. This area of the uterus is right near the spinal column of the mother. When the egg is fertilized, it remains close to that area of the uterus and grows from there. The “posterior” represents the back and the “anterior” means the front. What the posterior placenta means is the uterus positions itself among the pelvic bones of the mother. As the baby begins to grow, so does the uterus. The placenta attaches itself to the uterine wall. When it attaches to the posterior, it is considered a posterior placenta. Is Posterior Placenta Normal? Both an anterior and a posterior placenta are normal for both the baby and the mother. When it is in the vertical location of the uterus, this makes it a placenta posterior. When the placenta is on the back wall towards the upper portion of the uterus, it is considered the placenta posterior fundal. This is considered the best location for the baby to be in as it allows the baby to move into the anterior position just before it is born. While it faces its mother’s spine, the crown of the infant’s head is able to make its way towards the birth canal. How Does the Placental Position Change? When a woman is pregnant, an ultrasound is implemented to find out exactly where the placenta is and what its location to the cervix is. It is normal for the placenta to change throughout the pregnancy. Midway through the pregnancy, the placenta takes up 50% of the space on the surface of the uterus. At the 40 week mark, the placenta only takes up from 17 to 25% of the surface of the uterus. It’s not that the placenta is shrinking; it’s that it grows more at different times of the pregnancy. By the third portion of the pregnancy, the head of the baby begins to prepare for labor by descending down to the pelvic area. The lower portion of the uterus begins to thin out from the pressure that the baby’s head is putting on it. This is when the placental attachment looks like it is beginning to rise. When to Worry About Placental Position When the placenta grows in the direction of the cervix, it is called placenta previa and it could be a cause for concern. The placenta has a chance of detaching itself from the unstable portion of the cervix towards the lower portion of the uterus. This could cause premature labor and complications as a result of heavy bleeding. Usually there is nothing to worry about if a scan that is taken in the beginning of your pregnancy determines that your placenta is located at the bottom of your uterus. The placenta will be moving upwards as the pregnancy advances. Later on in the pregnancy this position of the placenta could cause problems. Placenta previa means that the cervix has become obstructed and the baby may not be able to be born vaginally. Placental abruption occurs when the uterine wall is stretched towards the second half of the pregnancy resulting in excessive bleeding. It is important to keep an eye on the location of the placenta throughout the pregnancy to determine if the mother will be able to deliver her baby vaginally or if she will require a Caesarian section.
6 Months Old Boy
Jun 2018
19 Answers
Second Trimester
Mar 2017
2 Answers
Amniotic fluid (liquor amnii) is the clear or slightly yellowish liquid surrounding the fetus in the uterus.The amniotic sac of a pregnant woman contains the amniotic fluid which plays a vital role in the proper development of the baby. Amniotic Fluid Composition It mainly contains water, fetal wastes (mainly urine) and fetal skin cells. Amniotic Fluid Origin and Production: The fluid is produced by the mother’s placenta during the first trimester and the early part of the second trimester, until the baby’s kidneys are mature enough to take over the task. The baby swallows the fluid as they “breathe” and then excretes it again as urine, thus maintaining the constant circulation of the fluid. However, the urine making up the fluid is not pure waste material as the majority of the fetal waste is passed through the placenta to be filtered by the mother’s kidneys. What are the Functions of Amniotic Fluid? It fulfils various purposes apart from protecting the baby inside the womb by forming a cushion around it. Helps with the uniform growth of the body parts and organs of the baby.Assists with the proper bone and muscle development Allows the baby to move inside the uterus Prevents the amniotic sac wall from sticking to the baby Breathing it in and out while in the uterus ensures proper lung growth of the baby The swallowed fluid creates urine and helps with the production of meconium (earliest stools of a newborn infant) Allows the digestive system of the baby to develop properly Prevents the umbilical cord (responsible for carrying food and oxygen to the fetus) from being squeezed Maintaining a constant temperature to keep the baby healthy Amniotic Fluid Levels Normal Amniotic Fluid Levels amniotic fluid picture Its volume continues to increase until the 34th to 36th week of pregnancy when the amniotic sac contains around one quart fluid on average. The fluid volume then gradually goes down until the time of delivery. Having too much or too little amniotic fluid during pregnancy may lead to various health conditions and complications related to childbirth. The amniotic sac breaks during or before (rare cases) labor draining the fluid through the vagina. This is commonly referred to as the waters breaking. Low Amniotic Fluid Levels Amniotic fluid deficiency during pregnancy can lead to a Oligohydramnios, which increases the chances of complications like premature birth and various birth defects (like hypoplastic lungs) in the newborn as well as miscarriage and stillbirth. There are generally no symptoms of low fluid levels apart from the belly being smaller than it should at a certain gestational age. Risk factors include gestational diabetes, hypertension, high blood pressure and preeclampsia. The treatment mainly involves fetal monitoring using regular ultrasounds. High Amniotic Fluid Levels Excessive amniotic fluid level in the uterus is known as polyhydramnios which can lead to symptoms like difficulty breathing, excessive weight gain and edema. Various factors may be responsible for elevated fluid levels, such as maternal diabetes and infectious conditions as well as fetal abnormalities. The extra amniotic fluid may leak through the vagina in some rare cases. Complications associated with polyhydramnios are similar to oligohydramnios as they include preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, stillbirth and various congenital problems (cleft palate, Down’s syndrome). Treatment or monitoring often includes weekly ultrasounds and karyotyping. Amniotic Fluid Index Chart Amniotic fluid index or AFI helps to estimate the amniotic fluid levels in the uterus for determining the fetal well-being. It is included in the biophysical profile of the fetus. The AFI (usually expressed in cm) is determined by performing ultrasound (ultrasonography) examination of the uterus. Certain procedures are used by doctors for determining the AFI with the “single deepest pocket” and the four-quadrant technique being most commonly used. The latter technique involves measuring the deepest vertical length of the fluid pockets separately in each quadrant to calculate the total fluid volume. Complications Associated With Amniotic Fluid Apart from the above two complications, amniotic fluid abnormalities can lead to the following conditions as well: Amniotic Fluid Embolism (AFE) A rare condition in which the amniotic fluid as well as some fetal materials such as hair, fetal cells and other debris enters the mother’s bloodstream through the placental bed, triggering allergic reactions. The principal symptoms are shortness of breath, sudden decrease in blood pressure, seizures, nausea, pulmonary edema and cardiovascular collapse. It can lead to life threatening complications such as severe neurological damage and even brain death. Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS) A group of birth defects generally occurring when certain body parts of the growing fetus gets caught in thin strings or bands within the womb. It occurs when the inside membrane of the placenta ruptures while the outer one remains intact, causing the stringy pieces to float around in the fluid. Sometimes, these pieces can entangle around the growing baby, cutting off the blood circulation in certain body parts (commonly the fingers and toes). Associated birth defects include short or absent finger or toe, cleft lip, cleft palate and club foot. Surgery in the utero to disentangle the strings is the most common and effective treatment option. [6] Chorioamnionitis (Intra-Amniotic Infection) Also known as amnionitis, it is a bacterial infection of the amniotic fluid before or during labor. E. coli, anaerobic bacteria and group B streptococci are some of the most common causes of the infection. Associated complications include heavy blood loss during and after delivery, c-section delivery and bacteremia (bacteria in the blood of the mother and the baby). Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Sometimes, the baby passes their first feces (meconium) shortly before delivery which then mixes with the amniotic fluid. Meconium aspiration syndrome, occurring when the baby inhales this mixture into the lungs, can lead to various congenital conditions (chronic lung disease, hearing loss, limpness at birth) and even death of the infant. Amniotic Fluid Tests and Analysis Amniotic fluid analysis involves collecting a fluid sample from the mother’s abdomen (amniocentesis) to assess the genetic health of the developing baby. The fetal cells in the fluid help to determine the risk of any genetic defects. Amniocentesis test is also useful for gender determination. Vaginal pH tests can also help to detect various fetal abnormalities. The amniotic fluid pH level ideally ranges between 7.0 and 7.5 while the upper vaginal pH remains between 3.8 and 4.5. So, a pH test strip showing pH levels above 4.5 may indicate ruptured membranes. Other tests used for detecting fetal abnormalities and fluid leakage include fern test and nitrazine paper test. Regular fundal height measurement can also help to ensure proper fetal growth and detect any change in the fluid levels. Signs of Leaking Amniotic Fluid Amniotic fluid leakage through the vagina can indicate certain serious complications during any pregnancy stage. A constant feeling of wetness due to continuous vaginal discharge is the main sign of leaking amniotic fluid. However, sometimes it might be quite difficult to determine whether the dampness is occurring due to fluid leakage or is simply caused by excessive sweating or urine leakage (mainly during the third trimester). The following points may help to detect a fluid leakage: The smell of the vaginal discharge can help to determine if it is amniotic fluid as the fluid has a characteristic sweetish smell rather than the normal ammonia odor of urine. The amniotic fluid may be cloudy or have a light yellowish or greenish or brownish (in case of meconium syndrome) coloration which can help with the identification. Sometimes, the discharge may have a pinkish or reddish tint due to blood in the amniotic fluid, which may indicate some fetal abnormality. However, some women may have clear amniotic fluid (which does not help with the identification of the discharge). How to Increase Amniotic Fluid Levels? Certain medical procedures are used for temporarily increasing the amniotic fluid levels for managing the conditions associated with low fluid amounts. Amnioinfusion : It allows increasing the quantity of amniotic fluid by instilling a saline solution into the amniotic sac. Maternal Re-Hydration : This procedure involves rehydrating the mother’s body using oral and IV fluids. Due to this reason, pregnant women with low amniotic fluid levels are often asked by their doctors to drink lots of water. Amniotic Fluid and Stem Cells Experts have recently proved that considerable amounts of stem cells are present in the amniotic fluid. These pluripotent cells are capable of differentiating into various tissues (skin, cartilage bones, muscles), a property that may prove useful for medical applications in the future.
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