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Third Trimester
Feb 2018
6 Answers
Placental grading/ maturity means (Grannum classification) refers to a ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications(calcium deposition). The grading system is as follows: grade 0: <18 weeks uniform echogenicity smooth chorionic plate grade I: 18-29 weeks occasional parenchymal calcification/hyperechoic areas subtle indentations of chorionic plate. grade II: >30 weeks occasional basal calcification/hyperechoic areas deeper indentations of chorionic plate (does not reach up to basal plate) seen as comma type densities at the chorionic plate. grade III: >39 weeks significant basal calcification chorionic plate interrupted by indentations (frequently calcified) that reach up to basal plate: cotyledons an early progression to a grade III placenta is concerning and is sometimes associated with placental insufficiency associated with smoking, chronic hypertension, SLE, diabetes A grade 3 placenta, for example, is normal at 40 weeks. But if too many calcifications are seen early in pregnancy, it can indicate that the placenta is aging too rapidly. This can happen in high blood pressure and diabetes, for example. If the placenta is found to have advanced calcifications early in pregnancy, the baby will be evaluated for growth at intervals to be sure he is getting the nutrients that he needs. In addition, the amniotic fluid level is checked frequently to make sure there is enough of it, because decreased fluid could mean the placenta is not providing enough nutrients to the fetus
3 Months Old Girl
Jul 2017
6 Answers
Full form of vaccines: BCG:Bacille Calmette Guerin DTaP: Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. IPV: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine. PCV: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. RV: Rotavirus vaccine. Birth of a child is an unparalleled moment of joy for couples around the world. However it is undeniable that a baby comes with loads of added responsibilities. From the very minute of a baby’s birth, parents become accountable for its overall health and well-being. Just like an expectant mother took utmost care not to miss any medical appointments, followed medical advice strictly for any prescribed medications and so on, similarly care should be taken not to miss any scheduled vaccines for the baby. What exactly is vaccination? Why should it be administered? Humans have natural immunity to combat diseases. The body is capable of releasing phagocytes and enzymes which have the ability to fight against harmful pathogens. However this attribute varies depending on various factors like age, fitness, nutrition, social and economic conditions etc. Hence even though it is passed on from parents to offsprings, it does vary because of these factors which play a significant role in developing it. Vaccination in simple terms is “acquired immunity” and is a mandatory requirement for babies. There are millions of disease-causing bacteria and viruses in the atmosphere. Over the years, science has made immense effort in identifying and isolating many of these and in turn helped in successfully weakening the grip of several dreadful diseases. Vaccination is a process of injecting in, small amounts of the weakened strains of these very bacteria into the human body so that it will be in a position to identify these bacteria and be prepared in case of an active invasion in the future. Also, if required a booster dose of a vaccine (upon medical advice) is given to provide better strength to fight an infection. Following vaccination schedule: Countries the world over follow vaccination schedules in conjunction with advice and guidance given by World Health Organisation (WHO). Every hospital is required to provide the parents of the new-born with a file or card to keep a tab on vaccinations to be given to the baby. Parents keep an eye on the schedule without fail. It is a welcome step that all these mandatory vaccines are available at low cost so that everyone gets benefitted. Further talk and understand with your medical practitioner about each and every vaccine and increase your awareness. It is good to be involved at every step than blindly following something with a herd mentality. Few important vaccines to be given: Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV): To be given to all kids upto 5 years of age. This helps in keeping at bay, poliomyelitis or paralysis. It is available free of cost. Bacillus Calmette Guerin Vaccine (BCG): This vaccine provides immunity against Tuberculosis. This can be given only until 5 years and is effective in providing immunity until 15 years of age. Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine (MMR): Provides relief from three dreadful diseases and is first given when baby is 9 months old and the second dose is given when it is between 1-1.3 years old. Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Vaccine (DPT): One another multi-purpose vaccine which can be given anytime starting from 1.5 months of age. This is a multi-dose vaccine and cycle goes on until the child is 10 years old. Rotavirus: This is given to babies less than six months old and is also a multi-dose vaccine. Helps in preventing diarrheal disease. Hepatitis B Vaccine: Given to newborns to provide immunity against disease affecting liver. It is given in multi-doses if mother is a carrier of the disease. It is a long drawn debate between pro-vaccine groups and the ones against vaccination, about the administering of vaccines. Medical science believes that it is important to create a “herd immunity” among the masses so that the larger population has the ability to combat many of these diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. In tropical, disease prone countries like ours, it is of the up-most importance that every child is immunized. As parents it is our responsibility to protect our children and make sure that they are strong and healthy under all circumstances. It is beneficial to follow medical advice and adhere to the prescribed compulsory vaccination schedule with diligence. Remember parents, Vaccination is the Way! for vaccines click :https://www.tinystep.in/vaccination-chart
7 Months Old Boy
Nov 16
4 Answers
3 Year 8 Months Old Boy
Nov 2017
25 Answers
Your baby’s sex is set as soon as the sperm meets the egg. It’s at the point of conception when a baby gets 23 chromosomes from each of their parents. Along with the gender, things like eye color, hair color, and even intelligence are already determined. Your baby’s genitals start to develop around week 11 of pregnancy. Still, you won’t usually be able to learn the sex for several more weeks via ultrasound. Of course, that doesn’t stop moms-to-be and their families from making predictions. The myths Here are five of the most popular old wives’ tales regarding your baby’s sex. Keep in mind that none of these tales are based on fact. Instead, they’re myths and are simply for fun. Even if some of these points run true for you (or have in the past), there’s a 50-50 chance of them being right either way. 1. Morning sickness You may have heard that the severity of morning sickness is a clue about your baby’s sex. With girls, the thought is that hormone levels are higher. For that reason, you’ll have more morning sickness. With boys, you should have relatively smooth sailing in the sickness department. The truth is that morning sickness can vary from woman to woman and pregnancy to pregnancy. A study published in The Lancet revealed that women who had severe morning sickness in pregnancy were more likely to have girls. Otherwise, there isn’t much scientific evidence to support this idea. 2. Skin condition Some people believe that a girl baby will steal the mother’s beauty. On the other hand, boys won’t give you as much acne. A similar tale revolves around hair growth. With a boy, your hair will be longer and have more luster. With a girl, it will be limp and dull. There’s no truth either way. Hormones are just crazy in pregnancy and affect all women differently. Washing your face frequently can help with breakouts. 3. Cravings With boys, you crave salty and savory foods like pickles and potato chips. With girls, it’s all about the sweets and chocolate. In truth, no conclusive studies have been performed on food cravings as an accurate predictor of sex. Those cravings probably have more to do with your changing nutritional needs. 4. Heart rate One of the most universal myths about gender revolves around your baby’s heart rate. If the beats per minute are under 140, the baby is supposed to be a boy. Higher than 140, it’s a girl. Unfortunately, though this one sounds more scientific, there’s no hard truth behind it. A study published in Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy revealed that there’s no meaningful difference between boy and girl heart rates in early pregnancy. 5. Carrying If you carry low, you might be having a boy. Carry high? It’s likely a girl. Actually, how you carry during pregnancy has more to do with the shape of your uterus, your unique body type, and your abdominal muscles. How soon can you know? Though sex is set from the start, you’ll likely need to wait a while before you decide to paint the nursery pink or blue. There are a few ways you can find out the sex of your baby earlier, including the following. Free cell DNA blood tests You can now take a blood test as early as nine weeks into your pregnancy. This can reveal your baby’s sex. Free cell DNA tests like Panorama work in pregnancy because your blood is carrying traces of your baby’s DNA. You give a blood sample, send it to the group’s lab, and get your results in about seven to 10 days. But revealing the gender isn’t the main goal of these tests. They’re actually a first line of testing for Down syndrome and other genetically inherited conditions. Learning the sex is just a bonus. As a result, these tests aren’t necessarily covered under insurance unless you’re over age 35 or have a history that might warrant genetic investigation. Other genetic testing You may have an amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling (CVS) during your pregnancy. These tests are similar to the free cell DNA blood test, but they are more invasive. Like the free cell DNA tests, you can find out your baby’s sex, just not as early. A CVS is usually performed between weeks 10 and 12. An amniocentesis is performed between weeks 15 and 18. If all you want to find out is the sex of your baby, you may want to skip these tests. They do carry some miscarriage risk. They are generally only recommended for older women, or couples with a family history of certain genetic conditions. Ultrasound You can typically find out the sex of your baby via ultrasound. This will be performed between 18 and 20 weeks. At this appointment, the ultrasonographer will look at your baby’s image on the screen and examine the genitals for different markers that suggest boy or girl. This is part of a larger anatomy scan. Even when you have an ultrasound, the technician may not be able to determine the sex of your baby due to a number of circumstances. If your baby isn’t cooperating and in an ideal position, you may need a repeat scan or might have to simply wait to find out. The takeaway Finding out the sex of your baby is exciting. You’ll probably hear about lots of ways to predict this important tidbit. But remember, most of these tales and theories aren’t based on fact. Just be patient, you’ll find out the gender soon!
Third Trimester
Sep 18
91 Answers
Shruti.. Yes I had a normal delivery.. But at what cost? I went through a similar thing during my delivery. I request you to read my post *An advice from a fellow momma part-1* please do read. picture this: I had almost same complications as u did, baby had swallowed meconium, had lungs and intestinal infections bcoz of meconium ingestion (got to know after delivery), baby dint come out soon, her head was stuck in vagina, her heartrate decreased as she was tired and stressed, no chance of c section even though i wanted it as pain was very bad as baby was 70% into the vagina and out of cervix, had to be finally pulled out through forceps and vaccum suction, had to be given oxygen externally as she cudnt take her first breath on her own, was wheeled into NICU when I soo badly wanted to see her and hold her on my chest, was in NICU for 3 days, the sweet, delicate little one was treated with antibiotics through intravenous injections, her back of palms had more than 21 pierce marks made due to numerous blood tests to make sure she was getting better, the delicate skin was pierced for drips with a cannula (google it), used to cry everytime someone just gently touched her hand due to pain, i cud hold her and feed for the first time only on the third day of my delivery, docs were not sure she would make it or if she made it, what complications she would have, her forehead has scratches and wounds due to foreceps, the vaccum suction left a huge, painful swelling welt at the back of her head which made her cry whenever v accidentally touched her head for almost a month, docs said its a miracle she is alive and she would be considered 'normal' only if she reaches her milestones on time. Soo many nights I have wondered and was frightened if my baby is normal or will she have developmental issues, till she started smiling at 1.5 months (her first milestone). I have cried to myself and infront of my mom soo many times worrying abt my baby. My baby is healthy and perfectly fine now, thank god and thanks to the docs and the hospital for their timely and efficient care, though she went through sooooo much pain, forget about the costs incurred.. I had no choice of c section as baby was already very much out of cervix. I feel all this pain cudve been avoided if there was option for c section for me. Now tell me.. incase of complications like ours, do u feel normal delivery is worth it? my baby dint deserve soo much pain. u r lucky that u and baby both are healthy now, thank God.. thank ur and baby's lucky stars... u are fortunate! Please be happy and love ur baby more. ur doc and hospital have worked hard to keep u both safe.. dont think abt all these things and lose soo many precious moments with ur bub! take care.. God bless u and baby.. :)
A Month Old Boy
Mar 2017
8 Answers
LOOSE MOTION(GASTROENTERITIS) Although it’s commonly called stomach flu, gastroenteritis isn’t the same as influenza. Influenza affects your baby’s respiratory system — nose, throat and lungs. Gastroenteritis, on the other hand, attacks the intestines.The rotavirus and noroviruses are two common causes of gastroenteritis. Babies usually become infected when they put their fingers or other objects contaminated with a virus into their mouths.A vaccine against rotaviral gastroenteritis appears to be effective in preventing severe symptoms. typically causes signs and symptoms such as: 1. Watery, usually nonbloody diarrhea— bloody diarrhea usually means a different, more severe infection 2. Abdominal cramps and pain 3. Vomiting 4. Loss of appetite 5. Irritability 6. Low-grade fever Depending on the cause, viral gastroenteritis symptoms may appear within one to three days after your baby is infected and can range from mild to severe. Symptoms usually last just a day or two, but occasionally they may persist as long as 10 days . How serious is it? A bout of viral gastroenteritis usually resolves on its own within a week or two. Antibiotics offer no help for viral infections.The main complication of viral gastroenteritis is dehydration. If your baby can’t take in enough fluids — through breast milk, formula or an oral rehydration solution — to replace the fluids being lost through diarrhea or vomiting, he or she will become dehydrated and may need to go to a hospital to receive fluids through a vein (intravenously). If your baby has severe or prolonged diarrhea, especially if accompanied by vomiting, watch carefully for signs of dehydration— extreme thirst, dry mouth, crying without tears and reduced urination compared to your baby’s usual output. Babies who are dehydrated usually will change from fussy to quiet to lethargic. Call your child’s care provider right away if your child: 1.Has a fever that is high for his or her age 2. Seems lethargic or very irritable 3.Is in a lot of discomfort or pain. 4.Has bloody diarrhea 5. Has vomiting that lasts more than several hours 6. Hasn’t had a wet diaper in six to 12 hours and can’t keep fluids down 7. Has a sunken fontanel — the soft spot on the top of your baby’s head 8. Has a dry mouth or cries without tears 9. Is unusually sleepy, drowsy or unresponsive. What you can do? When your baby has an intestinal infection, the most important goal is to replace lost fluids and salts.After vomiting or a bout of diarrhea, let your baby’s stomach rest for 30 to 60 minutes, then offer small amounts of liquid,1 to 2 teaspoonfuls at a time. If you’re breast-feeding, offer just one breast and let your baby nurse for five minutes. If you’re bottle-feeding, offer small amounts of regular formula. Don’t dilute your baby’s already-prepared formula. After 15 to 30 minutes, if the liquid stays down, offer it again. If you’re concerned about possible dehydration, ask your child’s care provider about giving your baby a small amount of an oral rehydration solution. Help your child rehydrate Give your child an oral rehydration solution (Pedialyte, others). Don’t give him or her only water. In children with gastroenteritis, water isn’t absorbed well and it won’t adequately replace lost electrolytes. You can find oral rehydration solutions in most grocery stores. Talk to your care provider if you have questions about how to use them. Avoid giving your child apple juice for rehydration because it can make diarrhea worse. Return to a normal diet slowly Drinking is more important than eating. When your child seems ready to eat, there’s generally no need to restrict his or her diet, but bland foods — such as toast, rice, bananas and potatoes — are usually easier to digest. Avoid certain foods Don’t give your child dairy products and sugary foods.These can make diarrhea worse. Make sure your child rests The illness and dehydration may have made your child weak and tired. Don’t give children aspirin It may cause Reye’s syndrome, a rare, potentially fatal disease. Also don’t give your child over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medications such as Imodium, unless advised to do so by your child’s care provider. They can make it more difficult for your child’s body to eliminate the virus.
10 Months Old Girl
Nov 16
2 Answers
Second Trimester
Aug 9
187 Answers
A Month Old Boy
Aug 2018
77 Answers
Hi Don't worry... I had my first pregnancy in USA.. our elders visa got rejected and reached to a point in pregnancy no flight journey.. there is no other option except to handle it alone with hubby. Do not get panic and think that we women cannot do. WE CAN... yes we went to pregnancy and baby classes and learnt all that's necessary.. my husband was able to take only 1 week leave and he had to rush to the office.. it's all alone me who handled new born, feeding, oil massage, baths, bottle cleaning etc etc. My hubbys work started to be more pathetic that he could not help me after coming from office.. my friend helped me in cooking for a month.. after a month my baby born I started cooking. We cannot afford maid in USA. So it's me and hubby who use to do all the work and manage baby. Weekends he use to take care of cleaning house and laundry. It's not something that we cannot handle.. build confidence and do it yourself.. it might be messy but you can do it.. situations will make us impossible also possible. USA household work is easy but India is little difficult.. talk to your husband and keep maid.. so that you can avoid household works completely and focus on baby.. you can do it dear... all the best.. Coming to your mom you should be knowing what's her problem is.. think think. If you think it's financial problem why don't you discuss with your husband and help her?? If it's her health problem why can't you keep a maid in your moms place?? So that work will be less and she can help you just with baby.. there is one more point too.. are you contributing your share of work?? Sorry I have observed my cousins try to not contribute there share and expect everything their mom to do.. at this age they might not be able to do so. Share of work I'm talking about is with baby not household..
Third Trimester
Aug 3
4 Answers
Placenta delivers nutrients and oxygen from the blood of the mother to the blood of the baby. The placenta covers a wide area and is connected to the uterus of the mother. The umbilical cord connects the placenta to the baby. The front area of the uterus is considered the anterior; the back side is the posterior; the fundal is the top wall; and the sides of the uterus are the right and left laterals. It doesn’t matter which area of the uterus the placenta situates itself, but if the lower portion is too far down it can make it difficult for the baby’s head to descend when it is time for the birth. Having a posterior placenta means that it can cause the mother to experience excessive bleeding while pregnant as well as while giving birth. What Is Posterior Placenta? When the placenta of a mother attaches itself to her uterus on the back wall, it is considered a posterior placenta. This area of the uterus is right near the spinal column of the mother. When the egg is fertilized, it remains close to that area of the uterus and grows from there. The “posterior” represents the back and the “anterior” means the front. What the posterior placenta means is the uterus positions itself among the pelvic bones of the mother. As the baby begins to grow, so does the uterus. The placenta attaches itself to the uterine wall. When it attaches to the posterior, it is considered a posterior placenta. Is Posterior Placenta Normal? Both an anterior and a posterior placenta are normal for both the baby and the mother. When it is in the vertical location of the uterus, this makes it a placenta posterior. When the placenta is on the back wall towards the upper portion of the uterus, it is considered the placenta posterior fundal. This is considered the best location for the baby to be in as it allows the baby to move into the anterior position just before it is born. While it faces its mother’s spine, the crown of the infant’s head is able to make its way towards the birth canal. How Does the Placental Position Change? When a woman is pregnant, an ultrasound is implemented to find out exactly where the placenta is and what its location to the cervix is. It is normal for the placenta to change throughout the pregnancy. Midway through the pregnancy, the placenta takes up 50% of the space on the surface of the uterus. At the 40 week mark, the placenta only takes up from 17 to 25% of the surface of the uterus. It’s not that the placenta is shrinking; it’s that it grows more at different times of the pregnancy. By the third portion of the pregnancy, the head of the baby begins to prepare for labor by descending down to the pelvic area. The lower portion of the uterus begins to thin out from the pressure that the baby’s head is putting on it. This is when the placental attachment looks like it is beginning to rise. When to Worry About Placental Position When the placenta grows in the direction of the cervix, it is called placenta previa and it could be a cause for concern. The placenta has a chance of detaching itself from the unstable portion of the cervix towards the lower portion of the uterus. This could cause premature labor and complications as a result of heavy bleeding. Usually there is nothing to worry about if a scan that is taken in the beginning of your pregnancy determines that your placenta is located at the bottom of your uterus. The placenta will be moving upwards as the pregnancy advances. Later on in the pregnancy this position of the placenta could cause problems. Placenta previa means that the cervix has become obstructed and the baby may not be able to be born vaginally. Placental abruption occurs when the uterine wall is stretched towards the second half of the pregnancy resulting in excessive bleeding. It is important to keep an eye on the location of the placenta throughout the pregnancy to determine if the mother will be able to deliver her baby vaginally or if she will require a Caesarian section.
Third Trimester
Sep 2018
55 Answers
6 Months Old Boy
Jun 2018
19 Answers
Second Trimester
Mar 2017
2 Answers
Amniotic fluid (liquor amnii) is the clear or slightly yellowish liquid surrounding the fetus in the uterus.The amniotic sac of a pregnant woman contains the amniotic fluid which plays a vital role in the proper development of the baby. Amniotic Fluid Composition It mainly contains water, fetal wastes (mainly urine) and fetal skin cells. Amniotic Fluid Origin and Production: The fluid is produced by the mother’s placenta during the first trimester and the early part of the second trimester, until the baby’s kidneys are mature enough to take over the task. The baby swallows the fluid as they “breathe” and then excretes it again as urine, thus maintaining the constant circulation of the fluid. However, the urine making up the fluid is not pure waste material as the majority of the fetal waste is passed through the placenta to be filtered by the mother’s kidneys. What are the Functions of Amniotic Fluid? It fulfils various purposes apart from protecting the baby inside the womb by forming a cushion around it. Helps with the uniform growth of the body parts and organs of the baby.Assists with the proper bone and muscle development Allows the baby to move inside the uterus Prevents the amniotic sac wall from sticking to the baby Breathing it in and out while in the uterus ensures proper lung growth of the baby The swallowed fluid creates urine and helps with the production of meconium (earliest stools of a newborn infant) Allows the digestive system of the baby to develop properly Prevents the umbilical cord (responsible for carrying food and oxygen to the fetus) from being squeezed Maintaining a constant temperature to keep the baby healthy Amniotic Fluid Levels Normal Amniotic Fluid Levels amniotic fluid picture Its volume continues to increase until the 34th to 36th week of pregnancy when the amniotic sac contains around one quart fluid on average. The fluid volume then gradually goes down until the time of delivery. Having too much or too little amniotic fluid during pregnancy may lead to various health conditions and complications related to childbirth. The amniotic sac breaks during or before (rare cases) labor draining the fluid through the vagina. This is commonly referred to as the waters breaking. Low Amniotic Fluid Levels Amniotic fluid deficiency during pregnancy can lead to a Oligohydramnios, which increases the chances of complications like premature birth and various birth defects (like hypoplastic lungs) in the newborn as well as miscarriage and stillbirth. There are generally no symptoms of low fluid levels apart from the belly being smaller than it should at a certain gestational age. Risk factors include gestational diabetes, hypertension, high blood pressure and preeclampsia. The treatment mainly involves fetal monitoring using regular ultrasounds. High Amniotic Fluid Levels Excessive amniotic fluid level in the uterus is known as polyhydramnios which can lead to symptoms like difficulty breathing, excessive weight gain and edema. Various factors may be responsible for elevated fluid levels, such as maternal diabetes and infectious conditions as well as fetal abnormalities. The extra amniotic fluid may leak through the vagina in some rare cases. Complications associated with polyhydramnios are similar to oligohydramnios as they include preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, stillbirth and various congenital problems (cleft palate, Down’s syndrome). Treatment or monitoring often includes weekly ultrasounds and karyotyping. Amniotic Fluid Index Chart Amniotic fluid index or AFI helps to estimate the amniotic fluid levels in the uterus for determining the fetal well-being. It is included in the biophysical profile of the fetus. The AFI (usually expressed in cm) is determined by performing ultrasound (ultrasonography) examination of the uterus. Certain procedures are used by doctors for determining the AFI with the “single deepest pocket” and the four-quadrant technique being most commonly used. The latter technique involves measuring the deepest vertical length of the fluid pockets separately in each quadrant to calculate the total fluid volume. Complications Associated With Amniotic Fluid Apart from the above two complications, amniotic fluid abnormalities can lead to the following conditions as well: Amniotic Fluid Embolism (AFE) A rare condition in which the amniotic fluid as well as some fetal materials such as hair, fetal cells and other debris enters the mother’s bloodstream through the placental bed, triggering allergic reactions. The principal symptoms are shortness of breath, sudden decrease in blood pressure, seizures, nausea, pulmonary edema and cardiovascular collapse. It can lead to life threatening complications such as severe neurological damage and even brain death. Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS) A group of birth defects generally occurring when certain body parts of the growing fetus gets caught in thin strings or bands within the womb. It occurs when the inside membrane of the placenta ruptures while the outer one remains intact, causing the stringy pieces to float around in the fluid. Sometimes, these pieces can entangle around the growing baby, cutting off the blood circulation in certain body parts (commonly the fingers and toes). Associated birth defects include short or absent finger or toe, cleft lip, cleft palate and club foot. Surgery in the utero to disentangle the strings is the most common and effective treatment option. [6] Chorioamnionitis (Intra-Amniotic Infection) Also known as amnionitis, it is a bacterial infection of the amniotic fluid before or during labor. E. coli, anaerobic bacteria and group B streptococci are some of the most common causes of the infection. Associated complications include heavy blood loss during and after delivery, c-section delivery and bacteremia (bacteria in the blood of the mother and the baby). Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Sometimes, the baby passes their first feces (meconium) shortly before delivery which then mixes with the amniotic fluid. Meconium aspiration syndrome, occurring when the baby inhales this mixture into the lungs, can lead to various congenital conditions (chronic lung disease, hearing loss, limpness at birth) and even death of the infant. Amniotic Fluid Tests and Analysis Amniotic fluid analysis involves collecting a fluid sample from the mother’s abdomen (amniocentesis) to assess the genetic health of the developing baby. The fetal cells in the fluid help to determine the risk of any genetic defects. Amniocentesis test is also useful for gender determination. Vaginal pH tests can also help to detect various fetal abnormalities. The amniotic fluid pH level ideally ranges between 7.0 and 7.5 while the upper vaginal pH remains between 3.8 and 4.5. So, a pH test strip showing pH levels above 4.5 may indicate ruptured membranes. Other tests used for detecting fetal abnormalities and fluid leakage include fern test and nitrazine paper test. Regular fundal height measurement can also help to ensure proper fetal growth and detect any change in the fluid levels. Signs of Leaking Amniotic Fluid Amniotic fluid leakage through the vagina can indicate certain serious complications during any pregnancy stage. A constant feeling of wetness due to continuous vaginal discharge is the main sign of leaking amniotic fluid. However, sometimes it might be quite difficult to determine whether the dampness is occurring due to fluid leakage or is simply caused by excessive sweating or urine leakage (mainly during the third trimester). The following points may help to detect a fluid leakage: The smell of the vaginal discharge can help to determine if it is amniotic fluid as the fluid has a characteristic sweetish smell rather than the normal ammonia odor of urine. The amniotic fluid may be cloudy or have a light yellowish or greenish or brownish (in case of meconium syndrome) coloration which can help with the identification. Sometimes, the discharge may have a pinkish or reddish tint due to blood in the amniotic fluid, which may indicate some fetal abnormality. However, some women may have clear amniotic fluid (which does not help with the identification of the discharge). How to Increase Amniotic Fluid Levels? Certain medical procedures are used for temporarily increasing the amniotic fluid levels for managing the conditions associated with low fluid amounts. Amnioinfusion : It allows increasing the quantity of amniotic fluid by instilling a saline solution into the amniotic sac. Maternal Re-Hydration : This procedure involves rehydrating the mother’s body using oral and IV fluids. Due to this reason, pregnant women with low amniotic fluid levels are often asked by their doctors to drink lots of water. Amniotic Fluid and Stem Cells Experts have recently proved that considerable amounts of stem cells are present in the amniotic fluid. These pluripotent cells are capable of differentiating into various tissues (skin, cartilage bones, muscles), a property that may prove useful for medical applications in the future.
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